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Jobs in Jammu 2022 – Different Private Sectors Jobs in Jammu

joba in jammu 2022

Get Information about this Week Jobs in Jammu 2022

jobs 2022

Guys Know about the Different Private Sectors Jobs in Jammu 2022. You have different type of jobs given below and select your category of jobs. To know more – Call on the number provide with the Job or E-Mail.

Check the Detailed Information about these Jobs from –> Here!!!

Different Vacancies in Aarohi Enterprises

Required 4 persons for the following posts :-

  • Technician & Service Engineer
  • Repair of Microwave, Induction, Cooker, Gyser, Heater, Blower, Fan.

Minimum Experience required – 2 years

Address for Interview: Vishal Nagar, Talab Tillo, Jammu.

Contact No. 8825044805, 9086024802




  • * WHATSAPP/CALL – 9149505059



Vacancy for MR Medical Representatives For Reputed Pharma Firm.

  1. One for Jammu, Samba, Kathua
  2. One for Rajouri, Poonch (Local of Rajouri)
  3. One for Doda, Kishtwar, Ramban (Local of Doda)

Qualification : Graduate/Post Graduate

Contact: 9906079302, 9682101820


IT Jobs in Jammu 2022 – Advanced & Best Technologies Pvt. Ltd are Hiring!

  • Senior & Junior Software Developers (Sal:25,000-75,000)
  • IT Support Executives (Sal:10,000-15,000)
  • Min 1 years of experience. Call Centre experience will be advantage.
  • Lead Generator/Data Entry operator (Sal: 10,000-12000)

Candidate must have good English communication skills

Contact us: 7051002662

Email: [email protected]






CONTACT: 9797519939


Full Time Computer Operator Jobs in Jammu 2022

Need Full Time Computer Operator in Cyber Cafe

Having Basic Knowledge of Computer. Salary Negatiable.

Location: Gandhi Nagar, Jammu.

Contact for Interview: 7006298595, 9419183885





CONTACT: 9419187111


Job Opportunity for Marketing Executive

Qualification 10+2 – Salary 10000/month

Kashmir Watch House

1st Floor, 420/A, Near BSNL

Office: Apsara Road, Gandhi Nagar,Jammu

Contact: 9419015612, 01913510579



  • REQUIRED MALE / FEMALE candidate for
  • OFFICE PURPOSE (Having Basic Knowledge of Computer + Good Communication Skill).




SEND YOUR RESUME AT [email protected]

CALL: 9419190432, 9999051719



  1. SHOP BOYS (2)
  2. OFFICE PEON (2)

CONTACT : 9596749478

jobs in jammu 2022


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CISF Constable Recruitment 2022 for Sports Quota General Duty

cisf recruitment 2021-22 for sports men and women

CISF Constable Recruitment 2022 | Central Industrial Security Force Recruitment: Recruitment of Meritorious Sportsmen and Women to the post of Head Constable (General Duty) against Sports Quota-2021 in CISF.

cisf recruitment 2021-22 for sports men and women

Applications are invited from the Male/Female citizens of India to fill up 249 vacancies of CISF Constable Recruitment HEAD CONSTABLE (GENERAL DUTY) in Central Industrial Security Force against SPORTS QUOTA for the year 2021. The discipline wise detail of vacancies are as under:-


  • The number of vacancies in each event as shown above are tentative and may change at any stage of recruitment process due to administrative reasons. Any change in the number of vacancies will be intimated by displaying the same on CISF Recruitment website https://cisfrectt.in
  • The posts are combatised and purely temporary in nature but likely to become permanent.
  • The CISF Constable recruitment is only for meritorious sportspersons who are either medal winner/position and/or participants as per Para-5(e).
  • Candidates selected for appointment are liable to serve anywhere in Indian Territory and
  • CISF reserve the right to cancel or postpone the recruitment any stage without assigning any

2. CISF Constable Recruitment 2022 PAY SCALES AND OTHER ALLOWANCES :

Head Constable (GD)                 –       Pay matrix Level-4 (Rs.25,500-81,100/-) plus usual allowances as admissible to the Central

Government employees from time to time.

3. All Selected candidates will be governed by New Restructured Defined Contribution Pension Scheme (National Pension System) to the Central Government Employees with effect from 01-01-2004.

4. Domicile Status : The candidates should be citizen of India.

5. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA : Only those candidates who fulfil the following eligibility standards will be eligible for recruitment against these vacancies:-

a) AGE LIMIT : Between 18 to 23 years as on 01.08.2021. (The candidate should not have been born, earlier than 02.08.1998 and later than 01.08.2003)

Note :-

  • Relaxable upto 05 years for SC/ST and upto 03 years for OBC candidates.
    Relaxable upto 40 years in the case of departmental candidates as on 08.2021.
  • Candidate claiming age relaxation on basis of OBC status must ensure that
    he/she possess the caste/community certificate and does not fall in creamy layer on the crucial date. The crucial date for this process will be the closing date for receipt of application i.e. 03.2022 Candidates may also note that in respect of the above, their candidature will remain provisional till the veracity of the concerned document is verified by the Appointing Authority.
  • Candidate who wish to seek age relaxation must submit requisite certificate
    from the competent authority in the prescribed format as per APPENDIX-H‟ & I‟. Otherwise their claim for SC/ST/OBC/NCL status will not be entertained.
  • Candidate belongs to EWS category, he/she should produce Income and
    Asset Certificate issued by the competent authority. The crucial date for submitting Income and Asset Certificate will be the closing date for receipt of application i.e. 03.2022 Candidates may also note that in respect of the above, their candidature will remain provisional till the veracity of the concerned document is verified by the Appointing Authority.
  • Candidates may also note that in respect of the above, their candidature will
    remain provisional till the veracity of the concerned document is verified by the Appointing Authority. Candidates are cautioned that their candidature will be cancelled forthwith in case claim of SC/ST/OBC/EWS status or avail any other benefit is made fraudulently.

B) EDUCATION QUALIFICATION: 12th pass from a recognized educational Institution with credit of representing State/ National/ International in games, Sports and

Note: Relaxation in height and chest as mentioned above will be permissible only on production of certificate from the competent authorities that the candidate belongs to the community/area as specified above.


  • The shortlisted candidates will be medically examined by the Medical Boards to assess their physical and medical fitness. The medical examination of the candidates will be conducted in terms of Uniform Guidelines for recruitment of Medical Examination for GOs and NGOs in CAPFs and ARs issued vide MHA UO. No.A-VI-I/2014-Rectt (SSB) dated 05.2015 and F.No. E-32012/ADG(Med)/DME&RME/DA-1/2020 (Part File)/1166 dated 31.05.2021 and as amended from time to time.
  • Candidates must not have knock knee, flat foot, bow legs, squint eyes, inability to close that left eye, inability to flex the fingers often, varicose vein and any other obvious deformities and should bear good mental health.
  • EYE Sight
  1. Visual Acuity unaided (Near vision)   – Worse eye – N9
  2. Uncorrected visual acuity (Distant vision) – Better eye – 6/6

– Worse eye – 6/9

  1. Refraction – Visual correction of any kind is not permitted even by glasses.
  2. Color vision – CP-III BY ISIHARA
  3. – In right handed person, the Right eye is better eye and vice versa.
  4. – Binocular vision is required.
  • Weight : Weight will be recorded at the time of physical measurement but the decision on fitness on account of weight will be taken at the time of medical examination.
  • TATTOO : Following criteria has been fixed to determine permissibility of Tattoo –

a) Content : Being a secular country, the religious sentiments of our countrymen are to be respected and thus, tattoos depicting religious symbol or figures and the name, as followed in Indian Army are to be permitted.

b) Location : Tattoos marked on traditional sites of the body like inner aspect of forearm but only left forearm, being non saluting limb or dorsum of the hands are to be allowed.

c) Size : Size must be less than 1/4 of the particular part (Elbow or Hand) of the body.


  • Candidates who have not acquired the essential educational qualification as on closing date for receipt of the Application Form of CISF Constable Recruitment, will not be eligible and need not apply.
  • Candidates should note that only the Date of Birth and Name as recorded in the Matriculation/Secondary School Examination Certificate will be accepted for determining the age and name. No subsequent request for any change in the Date of Birth or Name will be considered.
  • Only those meritorious sportsmen/sportswomen who fulfill the above eligibility criteria and have participated in the championships during the period from 01.2019 to 31.03.2022 or in last edition of any Tournament / Competition/ Games (as applicable), will be eligible for applying the post.
  • An application should be considered in light of the evidence which the applicant may furnish of his/her having represented in any one of the Competition/Tournament/Games.
  • Only the international tournaments approved by Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports/Tournaments Recognized by Indian/International Olympic Association/Respective National/International Sports Federations will be considered.
  • The Certificate (Form) issued on the prescribed format has to be under the signature of authorities as mentioned in para-6.

6. CISF Constable Recruitment 2022 The details of the competent authority for awarding certificate are as under:-


  1. Certificates (Forms) issued by the recognized federations/associations on the basis of actual participation and achievement in the National level competitions may be given the weightage in addition to the certificates issued by the above authorities.
  2. In case, the post of Secretary is not available in National Federation/National Association / State Association, the Certificates (Forms) signed by Senior functionaries and holding position Senior to/equivalent to the Secretary in the respective Sports Federations/ Associations will be accepted for considering the eligibility of meritorious sportsmen/ sportswomen for CISF Constable Recruitment.


All candidates who submit the Application along with requisite certificates in response to this advertisement by the closing date i.e. 31.03.2022 and time and whose applications are provisionally accepted and found to be in order as per the terms and conditions of this Notification, will be assigned Roll Numbers and issued admit card to appear in the recruitment process i.e. Physical Standard Test (PST), Documentation, Trial Test & Proficiency Test. Subsequently, shortlisted candidates will be issued Admit Cards for the next stages of the examination i.e. Medical Examination. Candidate will have to undergo the following process of recruitment:-


  1. Before start of PST, all candidate will undergo verification of identity including Biometric capture. Biometric identification of candidate can also be taken at any stage of recruitment.
  2. All candidates reporting for recruitment will be measured for height, chest and weight by the Board of Officers. The candidates who meet the requirements of physical standard will be allowed to participate in Documentation. The candidates who do not fulfil the laid down physical standards will be eliminated from recruitment process by giving rejection slip, thereof. However, elimination on grounds of weight will be done at the time of medical examination. Physical Standards has been elaborated in para-5(c) above. Relaxation in height and chest (as the case may be) as mentioned in para-5(c) above for the candidates other than those belonging to ST category will be permissible only on production of original certificate in the proforma as prescribed in APPENDIX-F‟ from the competent authority of the Districts where he/she ordinarily resides. ST candidates may avail the relaxation on the production of valid original ST certificate.
  3. Candidates who are declared not qualified in Physical Standards i.e. height and chest may prefer an appeal on the same day, if they so desire, to the Appellate Authority against rejection in physical measurement. Such candidates will be re-measured either on the same day or will be given a fresh date to appear for re-measurement by the Appellate Authority. The decision of the appellate authority in this regard will be final and no further appeal or representation in this regard will be entertained thereafter. If candidate is found to be within the prescribed standard, he/she will be allowed to the next stage of the selection process.
  4. Conduct of PST will be the sole responsibility of the PST Board and appellate CISF Directorate will not entertain any representation / appeal etc against the decision of the PST Board.


i) Candidates who qualify in PST will undergo Documentation. The candidates will have to produce all original documents/certificates pertaining to age, education, caste, sports achievement as per para-5(e), proof to avail age and height relaxation etc in the prescribed format before the Recruitment Board.

ii) CISF at its discretion can check or verify genuineness of any document/certificate produced by the candidate during recruitment or at later stage and the decision of CISF after such verification/checking shall be final.

iii) Candidates who are unable to produce the requisite certificates/documents will be rejected summarily by giving rejection slip intimating reasons thereof by the Recruitment Board and no candidates will be allowed provisionally.

iv) There shall be no appeal against rejection in documentation.


i) All the candidates declared qualified in PST & Documentation will undergo Trial Test of 20 marks in the sports event to which he/she belongs. Trial Test will be qualifying in nature.

ii) Though the Trial Test is qualifying in nature and merit will be drawn on the basis of marks scored by the candidates in Proficiency Test, however the minimum cut off marks in Trial Test for all events will be 10 marks, to be secured by all category

iii) Candidates who do not secure minimum cut off marks in Trial Test will be eliminated from the recruitment process by giving rejection slip intimating reasons thereof by the Recruitment Board.

iv) Appeal for re-conduct of Trial Test will not be entertained.

v) CISF will not be responsible for any accident/injury caused to the candidate during the course of trial test.


i) All the candidates declared qualified in Trial Test will undergo Proficiency Test of 40 marks in the sports event to which he/she belongs.

ii) The minimum cut off marks in Proficiency Test for all events/sports will be 20 marks, to be secured by candidates.

iii) Candidates who do not secure minimum qualifying marks in Proficiency Test will be rejected by giving rejection slip intimating reasons thereof by the Recruitment Board.

iv) Additional marks out of 10 will be accorded to the candidate having meritorious certificate/achievement in the respective sports events.

v) Appeal for re-conduct of Proficiency Test will not be entertained.

vi) CISF will not be responsible for any accident/injury caused to the candidate during the course of Proficiency test.


i) After completion of Proficiency Test, Merit List will be drawn strictly according to marks taking into consideration the performance of the candidates during the course of Proficiency Test and the marks accorded to the candidate having meritorious certificate/achievement in the respective sports events.

ii) Candidate will be given marks for any one highest medal secured by him/her during the period from 01.2019 to 31.03.2022 or in last edition of any tournament / competition/Games (as applicable). If any candidate has secured more than 01 medal in particular Competition/Tournament/Games, in that case he/she shall be awarded marks for only the highest medal/position secured in the Competition/ Tournament /Games.

iii) Priority would be accorded to individual as well as team events, chronologically, as given below:-

iv) If tie persists, the younger players will be given preference.

v) If tie still persist, candidate’s name in alphabetical order in English will be given

vi) Final Select List will be published on CISF Constable Recruitment Website i.e. https://cisfrectt.in after reasonable time from the date of completion of recruitment.

vii) No waiting list will be kept/maintained.


i) Candidates selected in order of merit as equal to number of vacancies will be put through medical examination to assess their fitness as per the medical guidelines issued from time to time by MHA.

ii) The Department shall have the discretion to fix different qualifying marks for candidates belonging to different disciplines/events taking into consideration vacancies allotted to each disciplines/events.

iii) However, being called & declared Fit in Medical Examination does not give them the right of final selection. Thus their claim for selection on such ground will not be entertained.

vi) Candidate will be declared FIT or UNFIT. No candidates will be declared as temporary unfit.

Also Read:

Best Chest Exercises for Mass and Bigger Chest Muscles

best chest exercises for mass bigger size chest

Know about the Best Chest Exercises for Mass and Bigger Chest Muscles: There are many theories as to the proper number of repetitions and sets of repetitions recommended for any specific exercise.

In fact, we are all unique individuals and what may be effective for one person may not be as effective for another. Your genetic makeup, goals, and available time are all specific to you.

In addition to reading this article, we recommend consultations with fitness professionals such as a certified personal trainer and your local specialty fitness dealer.

The human body is a highly adaptive machine. It can quickly adjust to routine stresses. Therefore, intensity and variety are vital components of any strength training routine.

Intensity is more important than a specific number of repetitions or sets of repetitions. The amount a muscle group is stressed (to failure) is directly proportional to the amount of increased strength / growth.

In other words, the more effort you put into training, the more results you should receive! Periodically changing the routine is also highly recommended. Your body will become accustomed to a routine. Variety will increase your results!

Please remember to start easy and increase the total time and number of repetitions gradually. Overdoing it in the beginning can cause unnecessary muscle soreness. If at any time you feel excessive or unnatural pain, stop immediately! Determine what is wrong before continuing.

See your physician if you have any doubts. In general terms, for maximum muscle building, we recommend 6-12 repetitions and 2-3 sets per exercise. For endurance training, We recommend 12- 20 repetitions and 2-3 sets per exercise.

Best Chest Exercises for Mass and Bigger Chest Muscles

1. Incline Dumbbell Bench Press – Upper Pecs

  • The incline of the bench will be higher than usual, approximately 55 degrees high. The bench is elevated to put greater emphasis on the upper pectoral muscles.
  • The inner edges of the dumbbells should be in line with your outer pecs, where the pectoral muscles and shoulders tie in, during the press.
  • Shoulder blades must be pinched together throughout the exercise.
  • Ensure the middle of your back is slightly arched, allowing your shoulder blades to drive into the bench, but make sure your lower back remains on the bench/padding.
  • The top range of motion is just shy of locking the arms. This keeps tension on the pec fibers.
  • The bottom range of motion is about two or three inches above the chest. Lowering the bar further recruits the shoulder muscles and takes tension off the pectoral muscles, thereby reducing hypertrophy by giving the pectoral muscles a rest.
  • When performing the chest exercises for mass, your arms should not bend beyond a 90-degree angle. This will ensure maximal tension is placed onto the pectoral muscles. If you extend beyond 90 degrees, tension gets redistributed to the shoulder muscles and taken off of the pectorals. To ensure your hands are placed in the right place, the width of your grip should be the width your hands would naturally go if you put them in the air when you are lying down.
  • Throughout the movement, your elbows should be about two or three inches below your shoulders. If you keep your elbows in line with your shoulders, you will be recruiting your shoulders and not your pecs.

Watch the following video for a demonstration of chest exercises for mass:
Watch Video Now

2. Decline Barbell Bench Press –Entire Chest with emphasis on lower pecs

This is one of the most important compound chest movements because it trains the entire pectoral muscle.

  • Pinch your shoulder blades together.
  • Drive straight up from the nipples.
  • Ensure the middle portion of your back is slightly arched, allowing your shoulder blades to drive into the bench while keeping your glutes on the pad.
  • The top range of motion is just shy of locked arms so as to keep tension on the fibers.
  • The bottom range of motion is about two or three inches above the chest. Lowering the bar further recruits shoulder muscles and takes tension off the pectoral muscles, thereby reducing hypertrophy by giving the pectoral muscles a rest.
  • If you are standing over a person performing this chest exercises for mass, where a spotter would stand, make sure their arm is just inside of a 90 degree angle. This will ensure maximal tension is placed onto the pectoral muscles. To accomplish this, the width of your grip should be the width your hands would naturally go if you put them in the air when you are lying down.
  • Elbows should be about one to two inches lower than the shoulders while performing repetitions. This ensures tension remains on the pectoral muscles throughout the exercise, not on the shoulders.

Watch the following video for a demonstration:
Watch Video Now

3. Startrac Flat Bench Press Machine – Outer and Inner Chest

  • Pinch your shoulder blades.
  • Handles should be at nipple height.
  • Keep elbows lower than shoulders by about two inches during the exercise.
  • Drive your toes into ground, which helps drive your torso into the padding of machine.
  • The bottom end of the range of motion is about two inches above the chest.
    » Going all the way down places tension on the shoulder muscles, thereby allowing the pectorals a break from tension, which reduces hypertrophy.
  • The top of the range of motion is just shy of locked arms so as to keep tension on the pectoral fibers.
  • When performing reps, the arm should be just shy of a 90-degree angle when the arm is bent.
  • These principles can be used on all flat bench press machines. They can also be used on all flat bench press movements.

Watch the following video for a demonstration of chest exercises for mass:
Watch Video Now

4. Flies – Upper, Inner Pectoral Muscles

I prescribe this exercise in a way that is completely different from most others. Traditional flies are performed with the palms facing each other. I perform them with thumbs facing each other.

  • Do these on a low incline, 20 degrees of height.
  • Position yourself so the tops of your shoulder blades hang just off of the top of the bench.
  • This will place your shoulder blades into a locked, pinched position, facilitating the recruitment of the upper, inner pectoral muscles.
  • At the top range your thumbs will be about four inches apart. This maintains tension on the pectorals. The movement should end over your hairline.
  • The bottom portion of the movement will be in line with your ears.
  • Your arms should be bent no more than 10-15 degrees, but never locked straight at 180 degrees.

Watch the following video for a demonstration:
Watch Video Now.

A point to remember is that it can be ineffective to train the same region of a muscle with two virtually identical movements unless the area is grossly underdeveloped.

For example, you should never do a flat barbell bench press in the same workout as a flat dumbbell bench press. You can, however, do two upper pectoral chest exercises for mass.

To do this properly, you would vary the angles of the two upper pectoral movements. This will ensure a variety of fibers are still targeted.


Chest Workout

A. Incline Dumbbell Bench Press 4 X 8-10
B. Decline Barbell Bench Press 4 X 8-10
C. Flat Bench Press Machine 4 X 8-10
D. Low Incline Flies 4 X 8-10

Also Read:

What is Multimedia? What are the components of Multimedia?

Multimedia and components of multimedia

Multimedia is an advanced technology that facilitates integration of text, data, image, graphics, audio, video animation in digital form. It provides new ways to enhance the delivery of informa­tion and its impact on the user.

Multimedia is information dis­played in picture/sound form and it does not include plain text exclusively. Thus, it includes pictures (graphics), sound (audio) and movies (video), which are captured and digitized by input devices to get the information ready for manipulation by the computer.

Multimedia is a combination of text, graphics, audio and video. Multimedia is a new trend in the field of computer science because it combines different media in one computer application, it is called multimedia. This enables the computer to be used as an entertainment and educational tool besides just a business tool.

Computer stores multimedia information in a variety of stan­dard formats. We can display or play multimedia information on output devices. For example: to play a sound file, we need speakers or headphones.

In some cases, the computer needs spe­cial hardware to connect to the output devices. For example, to connect a speaker to a PC, we need a sound card (which comes with most new computers).


Let us imagine a lion hunting its prey. A picture of a lion with a prey in its paws will reflect the mood a lot better than a hundred words. A 30-second sound clip of the same lion killing its prey will have a better impact than many pictures.

Again, a 10-second full motion video of the lion chasing its prey before will give much better perception than many minutes of pure sound of the spectacle.

However, when you put together all the above ele­ments in one, it is a good example of multimedia. Thus, multime­dia is a combination of various media like texts, audio, graphics, animation and video (See the above Picture).

Check out:

Components of Multimedia

1. Text

Text is one of the important part of multimedia. The design and content of multimedia text are however different from other types of texts, such as Newspaper text and book text.

The extent to which texts are used in multimedia project mainly depends upon the subject or content it deals with.

Since computers can display avariety of fonts, colors and their combinations, the ultimate result appears far better than the printed text.

2. Graphics

Computer graphics deal with the generation, representation, manipulation and display of pictures with the help of a computer. Graphics is an important component of multimedia by which we can illustrate information in picture form.

For example, to educate small children with the help of multimedia, we can make an illustration more descriptive with the help of pictures.

In a multi­media application meant for educating small children, displaying the photograph of a horse along with its text description, makes the illustration much more effective.

Pictures, photographic images and other artwork are called graphics.

Graphic Types

There are two types of computer graphics. These are:

  • Line drawing
  • Images

Line Drawing: These are drawings and illustrations in the form of 2D (two dimension) and 3D (three dimension) pictures using mathematical representation of simple objects like lines, circles, arcs, etc. Simple object types are used to create complex objects.

For example, the picture of a chair can be drawn using lines and arcs.

The area of computer graphics that deals with this type of pic­tures is known as generative graphics. This type of graphics is extensively used in creating illustrative diagrams.

Another very important application of generative graphics is CAD (Computer Aided Design) and CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing).

Now a days, CAD packages are extensively used in designing models for aircrafts, ships and building structures. The greatest advantages of using CAD and CAM packages for such applica­tions is that design changes can be quickly modified.

Images: These are graphics and photographs composed of a collection of pixels, which are arranged in two-dimensional matrix. The area of computer graphics that deals with this type of pictures is called cognitive graphics.

Cognitive graphics along with image processing techniques is extensively used in applications that deal with recognition and classification of pictures.

For example, a database containing images of people’s fingerprints is commonly used in criminal investigation and identification.

3. Animation

Animation is one of the most dynamic forms of multimedia. Unlike graphics, animations can provide dynamic movements to the objects.

For example, to show a bird flying in the air, all that graphics can provide is a digital photograph of the same. However, with animations, we can actually see the bird flying on the PC screen.

An Animation is created by recording a series of still images of drawings, objects, people, etc., in various positions of incremental movement. The animation when played does not appear as static images but it combines to produce the illusion of unbroken motion.

Animation consist of a series of drawings or photographs on paper that are viewed with a mechanical device or by flipping through a hand-held sequence of images. For example, a pad of paper con­taining drawings of a boy raising his hands, can be used to create an animated drawing

4. Audio

Computer audio deals with developing, recording and playback of audio with the help of a computer. Audio is another very impor­tant component of multimedia because in many cases sound can be useful for better understanding the information.

In some cases, sound may be the only means to convey the desired information. For example, the sound created by a dog can be easily recognized.

Speech, music and other types of sounds are called audio. Audio element is used to enhance the usual multimedia environment.

5. Video

Computer video deals with the recording and display of sequence of images. Each individual image in sequence is called a frame.

For a jerk-free full motion video, 25 to 30 frames have to be dis­played per second. It is an important component of multimedia because it is very useful for illustrating concepts that involve movement.

6. A) Multimedia Applications in Education

Multimedia has an enormous impact on education. Many schools in our country today use different types of computer-based teaching software based on multimedia.

In the near future hand­held machines for the study of various subjects will emerge. It is yet to be seen how effective and acceptable these machines will be as it will change the method of teaching and primary rules of schools and teachers.

However, this technology will enable stu­dents to learn at their own pace. In the present system, it is neces­sary for students to cope up with the class. This situation will change.

The quality of education can also be standardized and it will no more be the function of quality teaching which varies from one school to another.

Similarly, students in engineering colleges use interactive mul­timedia presentations to learn the basics of electronics, imple­ment, test and manipulate the circuit they design on a computer.

Training/classroom multimedia, popularly known as the CBT (Computer Based Training/Tutorials), uses multimedia technology to teach academic curriculum.

B) Multimedia Application in Entertainment

Entertainment and media industry are benefitted by multimedia technology. Images, animation and sound are widely used for making animation movies.

A computer is widely used by musi­cians to record, edit and mix sounds. Entertainment CDs, games, comics and stories for children are used for the purpose of education and training.

Video and entertainment films are created using computers and stored on CD-ROM (Compact Disk Read Only Memory). These are mass produced and sold at a fair price. Music can also be stored on CDs and played using multimedia software pack­ages, such as Media Player (Microsoft), Winamp etc.

Video editing, mixing, 3D animation and morphing are some of the techniques widely used for creating video films for various purposes.

C) Multimedia Application in Marketing

Multimedia can be used for sales and marketing in the following fields:

  • Information Directory
  • Reservations
  • Buyer’s Guide
  • Product/Sales promotions
  • Advertising
  • Interactive Catalogs
  • Merchandising – Point of purchase

In the area of advertising, multimedia will bring major changes. It will allow free-lance agencies to produce inexpensive rough cuts and prepare clips, thereby significantly reducing the dominance of the larger advertisement agencies.

Video conferencing is another application of multimedia which is gaining great potential. Imagine that you are using a computer and you wish to communicate with a colleague. Video conferenc­ing allows you to see your colleague right on your computer screen and vice versa, allowing you to talk face to face.

Business applications for multimedia include presentations, training, marketing, advertising, product demos catalogs, instant messaging and networked communications.

7. Names of Common Multimedia File Formats

File Format, in computer science, is the structure of a file that defines the way it is stored on the hard disk and laid out on the screen or in print.

The format can be fairly simple and common (files stored as plain ASCII text) or it can be quite complex and may include various types of control instructions and codes used by programs and by printers and other devices.

Examples include RTF (Rich Text Format), DCA (Document Content Architecture), PICT, DIF (Data Interchange Format), DXF (Drawing Exchange Format) TIFF (Tag Image File Format), and EPSF (Encapsulated PostScript Format).

As with audio, in the early days of the Web, adding movie/vi­deo to a Web page meant using one of the currently available movie/video formats (such as QuickTime or AVI (Audio Video Interleave)) and linking it to a page for download.

The evolution of streaming media has changed that, and now adding movie/video content like movie trailers, news broadcast, even live programming to a Website is much more practical and widespread.

While downloading files from the Web, you will many differ­ent types of file formats. You can identify a file type by looking at its extension, typically expressed as a dot followed by 2 to 4 letters (.xxx).

You will need this to know whether it will work on your computer, and whether you will need a particular type of software to decompress, play, or view it. Some of the movie/vi­deo file formats are as follows:

  • . avi: The standard movie/video format for Windows.
  • .mpg/mpeg: A standard movie format for saving movies on the Internet, using the MPEG (Motion Picture Expert Group) compression scheme.
  • .mov: The common format for QuickTime movies, the Macintosh native movie platform.

AVI File Format

Audio Video Interleave (AVI) format is the standard Windows format for audio/video data. This format exports a movie as a Windows video, but discards any interactivity. Because AVI is a bitmap-based format, movies that contain long or high-resolution animations can quickly become very large in a file size.

AVI is a good format for opening a Flash animation in a video-editing application.

An AVI file is a sound and motion picture file that requires a special player software that may be included with your Web browser, such as Internet Explorer version 5.0 and above. How­ever, some other browsers may require downloading of facilities for reading AVI files.

AVI is a raster-based video format that will transfer nicely into a video editing application.

MPEG File Format

MPEG is the acronym for Motion Picture Expert Group, a com­mittee that developed the MPEG standard. It is a set of specifica­tions for compressing and playing back full-motion videos, including movies and video clips.

MPEG rules cover both encoding-for storage on disk and decoding-for digital playback. Viewing an MPEG video on a microcomputer requires an MPEG decoder, which can be hardware, software, or a combination of the two.

There are several MPEG audio/video formats. These are:

  • MPEG1: This format is normally used in digital cameras. It is also the compression format used to create Video CDs. MP3 audio format is a part of the MPEG1 code.
  • MPEG2: MPEG2 video compression is used to deliver high-quality pictures in DVD movies and home-recorded DVD disks.
  • MPEG4: This newer, very flexible MPEG code is used for both streaming and downloading Web content, and is also the video format employed by a growing number of portable video recorders.

SWF File Format

Macromedia Flash (SWF) is a file format of the Macromedia Flash Player for creating and displaying interactive vector-based images and animated Web graphics. Macromedia Flash files are very compact and of high quality, making them ideal for Web use. The SWF file format was designed as a very efficient delivery format and not as a format for exchanging graphics between graphics editors. It was designed to meet the following goals:

  • On-screen Display: The format is primarily intended for on-screen display. Therefore, it supports anti-aliasing, fast rendering to a bitmap of any colour format, animation and interactive buttons.
  • Network Delivery: The files can be delivered over a net­work with limited bandwidth. The files are compressed to be small in size and support incremental rendering through
  • Simplicity: The format is so simple that the user has to depend upon only a very limited set of operating system
  • File Independence: Files can be displayed without any dependence on external resources such as fonts.
  • Scalability: Different computers have different monitor resolutions and bit depths. Files work well on limited hard­ware, while taking advantage of more expensive hardware when it is available.
  • Speed: The files are designed to be rendered very quickly with high-quality graphics.

Flash (SWF (Shock Wave Flash)) files cannot be imported into Core1DRAW. You can, however, link, embed, export, and publish Macromedia Flash files to the Web.

The SWF format for images on the Internet has several valuable advantages over other format types. Some of these include:

  • Since it has good compression, the Web pages can be loaded
  • It can also support embedded forms, script, user interface components and XML (Extensible Markup Language) feeds.
  • It allows vibrant animations and sounds in its presentation.

MOV File Format

The QuickTime (MOV) file format is used for video and anima­tion. QuickTime files run on all Macintosh computers and on Windows based computers that have a QuickTime driver installed.

It is a file format for storing and playing back movies with sound. QuickTime files usually appear with the . MOV extension in Windows.

MOV files are animation files that support 24-bit and 8-bit colour.

DAT File Format

DAT (Digital Audio Tape) file format is not a video file format but rather video data given an alternative extension. DAT files contain generic input or output, For instance, if you open a VCD(Video Compact Disk) and take as look at its contents, you will notice that there are several folders and not one single .mpg file.

The files have either a VCD or DAT extension. The actual video you burned are not the VUD files but the DAT files. With a VCD, the video files are converted into DAT files named sequentially in the format – AVSEQ01.DAT, AVSEQ02.DAT, AVSEQ03.DAT, etc.

You will find these DAT files in the folder called MITGAV on the CD. Thus, DAT files can be played from your hard drive, just like regular video files, except that you will have to choose Open With to associate the DAT file with Windows Media Player 7 and up.

8. Sound File Format

Sound is stored in one of the two basic formats. The first format stores sound in a form that resembles the original sound wave and is known as analog recording.

This format is called analog because the form of the sound wave, called the waveform, in the recording is analogous to the original waveform. In other words, the recorded waveform is a copy of the original waveform.

The second and newer format for storing sound is digital recording, which represents a sound wave as a series of digital signals.

9. Image or Graphic File Formats

There are many standards for image or graphic files. But they are all incompatible. Most of the multimedia programs can, however, load or save a wide variety of graphic formats. In this section, we will introduce you to some of the more popular image formats.

You can check the graphic format of an image by looking at the suffix (extension) of the file name.


TIFF (Tag Image File Format) is widely used for transferring bit-map images between application programs. TIFF images have .tiff or .tif extension.

It is used in desktop publishing, faxing, 3D applications and medical imaging applications. It is a file format designed by the Microsoft Corporation of USA.


BMP (BitMaP) format defines a display space and the colour for each pixel in the display space. A bitmap does not require information for each pixel on every row. It only needs to contain information when a colour changes along a row. Thus, an Image with solid colour will require a small bit map.

Because a bit map uses a fixed (or raster graphics) method of specifying an image, the image cannot be rescaled without creating a new definition.


JPEG (Joint Photographic hic Experts Group) format is one of the most common graphic file formats for Web Applications. The JPEG format was created by a group of photographic experts to store full-colour spectrum, continuous-tone images.

JPEG images are of much higher fidelity as well as in higher compressed form than images of GIF format. However, it takes a longer time to download graphic files that use JPEG format than those that use GIF format.

When you create a JPEG image or convert an image into JPEG, you are asked to specify the quality of the image you want. Since the higher quality requires larger memory space, one can make a compromise between image quality and file size.


GIF stands for Graphics Interchange Format. It is another format that is widely used for picture displayed on the World Wide Web. GIF files have .gif extension.

GIF image format was created by CompuServe to make it pos­sible for images to be viewed while online. GIF file format sup­ports only a maximum of 256 colours.

Thus, if colour depth is not important, one can opt for GIF files. If you want to maintain the quality and colour of the images, it is best to choose the JPEG format.


PICT format is widely used as an intermediary file format for transferring images between applications. It can include bit-mapped or vector-mapped images, and can use different com­pression schemes.

PICT format supports RGB (Red Gree Blue), grayscale, and Bitmap-mode images. It is specially effective for compressing images with large areas of solid colour.

When sav­ing an RGB image in PICT format, you can choose either a 16-bit or 32-bit pixel resolution. For a grayscale image, you can choose from 2, 4, or 8 bits per pixel.


PDF stands for Portable Document Format. This format is designed by Adobe. It is a file format that captures all the elements of a printed document as an electronic image.

This can then be viewed, navigated, printed or forwarded to someone else. To view and use these files, you need the Acrobat Reader software.

PDF files are useful for documents, such as magazine articles, product brochures, etc. in which you want to preserve the appearance of the document. This is because PDF files are read-only and cannot be modified easily by the viewer.


Also known as AutoCAD’s Device-Independent binary plotter image graphics. This is a vector format generated by the Auto-CAD corporation of USA. AutoCAD is a popular engineering drawing software package.


It is Adobe Illustrator’s metafile format. Metafiles are files that may contain either bit-mapped or vector graphics data.


DLG stands for Digital Line Graph. This is a vector format for stor­ing geographical data, such as mountain contours, etc.


The full form of JFIF is JPEG File Interchange Format. It is com­monly known as JPEG and with the file name suffix .JPG. The JPEG format was explained earlier.


PNG stands for Portable Network Graphics (pronounced as “ping”). It was created as a free-of-cost replacement for GIF. GIF cannot be included in commercial software without paying license fees to the owners.

PNG handles 1 to 48-bit images, and is a lossless, well-compressed format like GIF. However, it is still not very popular format.


PS is Adobe Systems’ Post Script format. Postscript is not an image format, but it is a page description language, originally conceived so that computers could send very accurate page descriptions to laser printers.

You can save black and white or even colour pictures as Postscript. However, postscript file size is very large and, therefore it is not a very efficient format. More­over, it retains the exact shape of the page when printed on a printer containing postscript driver.


EPS stands for Encapsulated Postscript file Format. This is a format which can be included in other documents – if your software sup­ports it. It is somewhat similar to the postscript format. It has limited number of English fonts designed by Adobe.


PSD is Adobe Photoshop’s native format. It stores all of its layers and selection and miscellaneous other image data in this format.


WMF stands for Windows Metafile Format. It is an intermediate vector format for Windows programs to be used when inter­changing data.

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What is Disk Operating System DOS? Types of Commands in DOS

disk operating system dos

Disk Operating System DOS: This operating system is one of the most useful operating systems. This program can be operated ‘both through floppy or a hard disk. This operating system can understand the valid commands given by the user.

It accepts the command given by the user and controls it. The, functions of input/output, file-management, memory management etc. are included in the DOS.

The operating system in DOS is mainly in three files :

  • IO.SYs

IO.SYS and MSDOSSYS are collectively called BIOS (Biodirectional Input/output System).

FUNCTIONS OF Microsoft Disk Operating System DOS:

Disk operating system performs a variety of functions which are explained as:

  1. Controls the operations of hardware and software.
  2. Creation of the new files and deletion of old files. Also copies files.
  3. Formats floppy disks
  4. searches viruses on the system.
  5. Provides information on the monitor to the user.
  6. Gets list of all files.

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What is Booting?

Booting means to start the computer so as to interact with it. When the computer is switched on, it searches COMMAND.COM file and other system files.

If computer is already set up to read these files from floppy disk, then it searches the required files first on the floppy drives. If these files are found on the floppy, it starts MS-DOS from there.

If search is unsuccessful and there is any floppy in the drive, an error message appears on the screen.

  • “Non-System disk on disk error”
  • “Replace and press any key when ready”

In such a case, remove the floppy from the floppy drive and press any key or enter key.

Now the system searches for required files on the hard disk. If these files are found there than it performs self tests and gives a beep (sound).

When the system starts MS-DOS from the floppy drive, it shows the DOS-prompt as under:


When it starts MS-DOS from the hard disk, it shows the DOs-prompt as under:


The process of starting the computer in the above way is called cold booting.

Sometimes, the computer does not give response due to some reasons and in that case you can restart it by pressing Ctrl + Alt + Del Keys. The process of starting the computer using these keys is called warm booting.

DOS Commands

DOS Commands are of following two types:

  1. Internal commands
  2. External commands

The detail of these commands is being given below


These commands are in-built commands which are loaded in the computer memory when it boots up :

Examples of Some Internal DOS-Commands are :

  1. DIR
  2. DEL
  3. TYPE
  4. COPY
  5. TIME
  7. CLS
  8. DATE
  9. CD
  10. VOL
  11. PROMPT


External Commands are loaded in memory of computer additionally.

Examples of some external Commands are given below:

  1. CHK DSK
  4. PRINT
  6. MEM
  7. TREE
  9. XCOPY
  10. EDIT
  12. MOVE

Also Read:

Hardware of Computer | Hardware Components and their Functions

Hardware components of computer

Hardware of Computer: Those parts of computers which we can touch and feel are hardware items. A computer system is in itself a combination of various components.

These components are called hardware. Hardware consists of input, output, storage (memory) devices. These devices have been explained below:


The data is fed into computer with the help of input units.

keyboard input device

Keyboard Hardware of Computer

Keyboard is one of the most important input unit used for the purpose of input. Input unit is used to –

  • feed new data
  • remove the old data/ records – alter the data/making corrections

A keyboard which is just like a typing machine with modified functions. As soon as we press a key on the Keyboard, a character on the V.D.U. appears.

Magnetic disk, magnetic tape, Punch card reader, punched paper tape and floppy disk are hardware of computer are also used as input media. Mouse, Light Pen, Joystick and track ball are also popular input media.

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Hardware of computer – Mouse is a handy input device used for pointing. It has a long tail which is connected with mouse card.  It can be moved on a smooth surface i.e. table or mouse pad to stimulate the movement of cursor.

hardware component mouse

The cursor may be in the form of a shining arrow, which is called mouse pointer. The user can move the arrow in any direction i.e. from top to bottom or one corner to other corner diagonally on the screen in a flash.

Mouse is very useful like input device in Desk Top Publishing programs. Programs like Windows, PageMaker, Ventura, Corel­Draw, MS-Word etc. are very difficult to run without mouse.

It has push button which can be pressed to open some window or sub-window on the screen at a click.

It is very easier to control cursor movement with a practice of a few minutes.

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Joystick input

It is also a pointing input device which is used frequently in programs like video games and on personal computers. It is an electric device used like a mouse for controlling cursor movement.

It consists of four micro-switches arranged in four directions (East, West, North, South). When the joystick is moved in a particular direction, the switch is activated in that direction and gives a signal to the cursor.

The cursor moves in the direction in which the stick has been moved.

Light Pen

light pen

Light pen, as the name suggests is a pen shaped light-sensitive device and can be connected to a computer to draw graphics and to highlight the text directly on the computer screen.

It contains the light receptor and is activated by pressing the pen against the face of monitor.

When the pen is brought close to the screen, the light emitted by it modifies the data. The pen consists of a light-sending mechanism at the end of a pen.

Track Ball

Track Ball Input Device

This is also pointing device. It contains a ball which can be rotated in any direction.

The user moves the ball in the desired direction to move the cursor on the screen. Speed of spin is controlled by the electronic circuit. The instructed information is sent to the processor.


Printing devices are used for printing the processed information i.e. output. The output may be in the form of figures, images, charts etc.

This output can be printed by different types of printers. Different printers are used for different purposes.

Printers Varieties

  • Dot matrix printers
  • Line printers
  • Daisy wheel printers
  • Inkjet printers
  • Thermal matrix printers
  • Laser printers.

Voice and Speech Devices

A voice input system is one of the most exciting input system. This system accepts the human voices/speech so that it could form the input to computer directly without the movement of keys, mouse etc.

The spoken input is analyzed and matched with the pre-stored patterns to identify the input.

Voice recognition techniques are used to convert voice signals in appropriate words.



A scanner hardware of computer is an instrument which is used to scan a diagram, photograph etc. and the image can be brought on to the monitor.

When a scanner is used, light is ON in the scanner. The scanner is moved to and fro on the figure or a photograph. The image of the figure appears on the screen of the monitor. This image can be edited, and shaped into desired form.

While using the hand scanner, care must be taken that the hand remains uniform, otherwise the image appeared will not be free from defects.

For sensitive jobs, flat bed scanner is used. To use a scanner, a special software is required to be loaded in the computer. This software is generally available with the scanner.

Scanner document

Optical scanners are becoming very popular for the purpose of office automation. Scanners facilitate capturing of various photographs and pictures in graphic form and the images are stored in the computer.

As and when need arises, the image is retrieved on the screen of the monitor. Now-a-days, computerized bank branches are using scanners for storing the signatures and photographs of the customers.

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR)

Due to banking increasing habits of the people, there is tremendous volume of cheques being presented in the banks every day. To make this work easy, MICR system is used in banking applications worldwide.

This technique is in operation since last some years. In this method, the cheques are pre-coded and what is written on it is read by the machines.

The cheques can be read directly by the MICR reader, without the need of transcribing the data on punched cards of paper tapes. The requisite information is printed on the cheques with a special type of ink.

This ink is made up of magnetic material and when the cheque is inserted in the machine, the information printed on the cheque is magnetized and is read by the machine. This technology has become very popular world-wide.

Optical Mark Recognition Technology (OMR)

OMR technology permits the direct reading of any printed character. The computer is able to read the documents directly. The characters are read by optical scanners.

The major advantage of this technology is that no special ink is to be used. In this way, this technology is somewhat superior to MICR technology.

Area of use of OMR Technology

This technology is not widely used in India. However there are some areas where this technology is being used. This technology is useful for objective type questions.

Answers to objective questions are evaluated by these machines. Various Recruitment Boards are using this technology. The answer sheet contains ovals which are to be blackened by HB pencil.

The scanner of the machine reads the characters (black ovals) and compares them with correct answers and then it evaluates the questions. This technology is also used in survey of population and survey of markets.

Optical Bar Code Reader (OBR)

This device scans a set of vertical bars having different width for specific data. The devices are available as hand-held devices and are used to read merchandise in stores, library books, medicines etc.

Digital Camera

digital camera hardware component

Digital camera provides digital image of an object which is of high quality. It can be used like a simple camera to take photographs. These photographs can be displayed on the computer using some special image software which is generally made available with the digital camera by the manufacturer.

A digital camera can be connected with a computer even for videoconferencing. Digital camera has its in-built memory. The image is stored on the memory chips of the camera which can be downloaded into the computer.

On computer, the image can be edited in any desired formats. To edit the images/photographs, software like Photoshop, Core1DRAW, Photo Deluxe etc. can be used.

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Hardware of computer Output devices are those hardware devices which accept the results produced by the computer or processed output sent by the computer. These devices produce the results and reports in the readable form. Output devices mainly fall into two categories.

  • Devices that produce output that is understood by printers and me, tors.
  • Auxiliary storage devices that hold data which may be intended for further

Visual Display Unit

Video Display Unit is called monitor. This hardware of computer is an important hardware device since all the data being fed in the computer is displayed on the VDU screen. You can check the data for its accuracy and any mistake seen in the data entry, can be corrected through the keyboard.

Similarly if the result is just to be viewed, the same can be sent to the VDU. A monitor represents like a TV screen. It displays the graphics information generated by the computer through a card called video card.

The video card translates information that is coming from the computer into a form the monitor can understand. Information on a monitor is displayed in the form of pixels.

A pixels is the smallest element of the image. Resolution of the monitor screen means how many pixels it can accommodate in a given time. Resolution is determined by the number of pixels horizontally and vertically.

The typical resolution ranges from 640 x 480 pixels to 1024 x 768 pixels. The more is the resolution, the more accurate will be the image.

The size of the monitor is measured diagonally across the screen. Monitors are available in the size of 15″, 17″, 19″, 21″ and 25″ size. Three categories of screen displays are available

  1. Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
  2. Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)
  3. Projection Displays

CRT Displays

monitor crt hardware of computer

The main components of a CRT monitor are the electron gun and a phosphor coated display screen with a electron beam controlling mechanism (electromagnetic field).

The quality of display is indicated by the resolution of the display device. There are different types of CRT displays.

  • CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)
  • MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter)
  • HGA (Hercules Graphics Adapter)
  • EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter)
  • VGA (Video Graphics Adapter)
  • SVGA (Super Video Graphics Adapter)

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)

Lcd Monitor hardware component

The major advantage of LCD technique is the low energy. LCD screens are commonly used in portable devices because of their compactness and low energy requirements.

Projection Displays

The personal size screen of the displays are replaced by the large screens upon which images are projected. These are normally used for large group presentations.

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Printers are the output devices. The data/information from the main memory of computer is transferred to the memory of printer and the same is printed in the form of output.


The data can be printed in the form of graphs, letters, reports etc. as desired by the user. Printers are mainly divided into two Categories.

1. Impact Printer             2. Non Impact Printer

Impact Printer

Hardware of computer Impact Printers use ribbon/ carbon papers to leave an impression on the paper. Dot matrix printer, Line printer and Daisy wheel printer come in the category of Impact Printer.

Dot Matrix Printer

dot matrix printer

Dot Matrix Printer leaves the impression of character in the form of dots. This printer consists of a hammer which prints the characters one by one. Output is obtained in the form of dots. This printer is widely used with Personal Computers.

The hammer of the head contains 9 pins or 24 pins. The typical speed of dot matrix printer is 40 characters per second to 1000 character per second.

Line Printer

Line Printers are called so because these print one line at one time. The speed of line printers is measured in terms of printing of lines per minute. These printers cart work on a large amount of data printing for a quite longer duration of time.

The hammer of this printer prints the character with the help of ribbon. The speed of line printer is wonderful and they can print 300 to 2500 lines in a minute. The  width of the line is 15 inches and the line has 96 to 160 characters. Chain Printers and drum printers come in the category of line printers.

Chain Printer

In a chain printer, a chain of characters rotates and in this process hammer of the printer strikes on chain and the character of the chain leaves an impression of the character on the paper. This printer can work for a longer time but the quality of output is not so good.

Daisy Wheel Printer

This printer contains a disk of metal or plastic and it has 96 characters on its petals. This disk is capable of rotating. The hammer of this printer pushes the character and it leaves an impression of the alphabet on the paper.

Typical speed of daisy wheel printer is 20 characters per second to 100 characters per second. Daisy wheel printers can not be used for longer duration and also they are slow in functioning. The main feature of this printer is that the printing is of superior quality.

Non-Impact Printers

Laser Printer

These printers generate both graphics as well as text as image outputs. The quality of output is very good. These printers use the technique of laser and photocopy.

The speed of this printer is marvelous. It can print more than 300 pages in one minute. It can print a normal book only in one minute. With the development of technique, Laser Printers now, can print multicolored graphics/output. As the quality of the output is very good, laser printers are used in Desk Top Publishing.

The main limitation of laser printer is that it is very costly. Only large institutions and professionals can afford its installation and maintenance cost.

Thermal Matrix Printers

This is another type of non-impact printers. These printers work on heating arrangement. Special type of paper is needed for printing.

It contains print wires and when electricity is passed through these wires and with passage of current, the wires get heated and leave impression with the help of special type of ribbon. These printers are slow and costly.

Inkjet Printer

Inkjet printer is a new development in non-impact printers. These printers do not make a noise while printing. The drops of ink appear in the form of character. Small pumps release tiny drops of ink through nozzles onto the paper in the form of character.

The printing of this printer is good and a good quality of graphics can be obtained. The speed of Ink Jet Printer ranges between 50-300 characters per second. The shaped of these printers is very less as compared to laser printers.


Plotters are output devices and are used for various purposes like graphics, diagrams etc. There are different types of plotters and are used for various purposes.

  • Graph Plotter                                     
  • Flat Bed Plotter                                     
  • Drum Plotter

Graph Plotters

As evident from its name, graph plotters are used in graphic work and diagrams. Plotters are of mainly two types

  • Flat Bed Plotter                       
  • Drum Plotter

Flat Bed Plotter

This plotter uses a light pen and draw graphs on the papers. Multicolored pens are used for graphics. Pen is controlled by pen holder. To draw a colored diagram or graph, pens of 8-10 colors are used.

This plotter is also known as LIGHT PEN PLOTTER. It can make graphs of small to large size depending upon the size of Bed.

Drum Plotter

Drum plotter (printer) contains a drum which is cylindrical in shape. The drum is capable of rotating. Drum Plotter plots the graphs on paper by rotating. Normally a line in printed output contains 132 characters and this can print 600-2000 lines per minute. These plotters are very costly and are not used widely.


There is hardly any computer application which does not requires storage space. The data is stored for using in future. The auxiliary or secondary storage devices supplement the main memory.

They can store programs, data as well as output. This storage unit acts as input and output to the computer. Secondary storage devices hold the programs and data permanently.

Characteristics of Secondary Storage Devices

  1. High storage capacity. The secondary storage devices can store enormous amount of data. This capacity may be in terabytes.
  2. Access time. The time required to retrieve the data is very small. It may be in nanoseconds (billionths of a second).
  3. Data transfer rate. The data transfer rate (into or out) is very fast. They can send information to output devices in billions of bits per second.


Floppy Disk

floppy disk hardware of computer

Hardware of computer – Floppy disk is a recent development in storage devices. It was developed in 70s. This is very small storage device which can be used both as input and output medium.

This is made up of elastic plastic material and is finely coated with magnetic oxide. This disk is placed in plastic cover to avoid damage. The floppy is available in three standard sizes of 8″, 5.25″ and 3.5″. The storage capacity of each floppy disk is different.

So to select a floppy, the amount of data to be stored is taken into consideration. These days floppies of 3.5 inch size of 1.44 MB capacity are most frequently used and other two types have been outdated now.

Floppy SizeStorage Capacity
8 inches


5.25 inches

3.5 inches

250 KB to 1.5 MB (Outdated)


125 KB 1 MB (Outdated)

1.44 MB


Features of Floppy Disk

  1. It is a small storage medium and can be easily taken from one place to another.
  2. It is cheap storage medium.
  3. It is very useful for Personal Computer.
  4. It can be used both as input and output medium.
  5. It can be used for reading and writing.
  6. It is very useful for small commercial houses.

The floppy is inserted into floppy drive. This rotates inside the floppy drive like a musical record and the data is stored on fine circular paths called tracks. The data already stored in it can be removed and new

data can be fed in place of it. The capacity of floppy disk depends upon the following factors :

  • Design
  • Density
  • Surface

Number of tracks

In some floppies both surfaces can be used, hence the storage capacity is doubled. If more is the density and number of tracks on the floppy, more is the storage capacity.

Formula for calculating storage capacity of the floppy :

Capacity =N  x  n  x  s  x  d

Where N = Number of tracks, n = Number of sectors

s = Number of sides, d = Data capacity


Magnetic Disk (Hard Disk)

Magnetic Disk resembles a record player. This is very useful and one of the most popular storage devices hardware of computer . The data stored onto it can be searched out very quickly and we have not to pass through the data sequentially.

In this way the magnetic disk has an edge over magnetic tape. Magnetic disk pack consists of 6 or more than six disks which are elastic in nature. The material of the magnetic disks is made up of plastic.

These disks rotate on one another in a spindle. The distance between each magnetic disk is 0.5 inch and these rotate at the rate of 60 or more rotations per second. Disks can be used from both surfaces.

The surface of a magnetic disk is finely coated with magnetic oxide which gets magnetized very easily. The disk surface contains circular paths called tracks and each track is divided into a sector.

The data can be stored equally in each track. The size of the tracks is smaller as compared to outer tracks. packing density of the tracks is different. The tracks near to the center of the dis have more packing density and the tracks away from the center (large in size) have lesser packing density.

The storage capacity of the disk depends upon the following factors :

  • -Packing Density
  • -Number of surfaces
  • -Number of tracks each surface
  • -Number of sectors in each track.

A standard magnetic disk contains 400 to 1600 tracks and the standard size is 14 inches. Disk can store 0 to thousand kilobytes of data. These days hard disks are available in the storage capacity of 2 GB, 10 GB, 20 160 GB, 200 GB, 250 GB etc.

Terms Related With Magnetic Disk

  • Cylinder : Cylinder is a major sub-division of a disk. Each disk is considered as a combination of these cylinders. The number of cylinder on a disk is equal to the number of tracks on it.
  • Seek Time : As soon as the read/write command is given, the read/write heads are positioned on the specified track number by moving the arm in the direction of specified track number. The time required to position the head over the specified track is called seek time.
  • Latency Time : When the read/write heads are positioned on the specified track, the head on the specified track is activated. The disk is continuously moving. The head waits for the desired data to come under it. The time required to spin the needed data under the head is called latency time.
  • Access Time : The total of Seek Time and Latency Time is called access time.

 Access Time = Seek Time + Latency Time

The average access time for most disks is ranging from 10 milliseconds-100 milliseconds.

Comparison between Floppy and Magnetic Disk (Hard Disk)

  1. The storage capacity of magnetic disk is much more than that of Floppy Disk.
  2. More than one program can be done on the magnetic disk in a given time.
  3. A large amount of data can be stored even on one magnetic disk.
  4. The access time in magnetic disk is less than that of floppy disk.
  5. Hard disk is costlier than a floppy disk, but is widely used due to its features.

Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape hardware of computer is a storage device in the form of plastic ribbon (tape) which is rolled on a reel. This tape is similar to a tape recorder cassette. The ribbon of this device is made up of plastic material and a fine coating of magnetic oxide is done on the tape.

This oxide is magnetized very easily. When we feed data in a tape, this is recorded on the tape as magnetic spots. Normally the length of the tape in a tape reel is 2400 feet and its standard width is 1/2 inch.

A text book of 400 pages with 50 lines per page and 40 letters per line can he accommodated in less than 15 feet of tape of density 6250 bpi. The storage capacity of a tape depends upon the following factors :

  • Tape density -Length of tape
  • Blocking factor -Inter Block Gap

Features of Magnetic Tape

  1. it is a cheap storage medium.
  2. Large amount of data can be stored on it depending upon the length.
  3. Data can be transferred easily from one computer to another.
  4. Errors of information written on it can be easily removed/amended.
  5. Magnetic tape is easy to use.

Besides its features, magnetic to has one defect. There is some gap between two records and a large amount of tape is wasted in this way. But this gap is of significant importance.

During read/write time some tape moves ahead, hence some gap left between two records. This gap is called INTER RECORD GAP. This gap is different in different tapes. Some times it is 0.5 or 0.6 inch.

To avoid wastage of the tape, a special method, called blocking, is used. Some records are grouped and a block is created. For example if 20 records are grouped to form a block then the Blocking factor is said to be 20.

There is some gap between two blocks and this is called INTER BLOCK GAP (IBG). While selecting a magnetic tape, blocking factor is taken into consideration.

Winchester Disk

This storage device is also a recent development and very useful for storage of data. This disk is better than floppy disk or hard disk because it is sealed in air-tight box. Air, dust particles and other harmful elements cannot enter into the had and this disk remains quite safe.

This disk contains many tracks and the packing density of these tracks is very high. A large amount of data can be stored in this disk. The data on this disk can be written/read at a very fast rate.

Standard size of the Winchester Disk

(1) 5.25 inches         (ii) 8 inches       (iii) 14 inches

Depending upon the size, the storage capacity of the Winchester disk is different. The capacity may vary from 10 MB to 500 MB and even more.


Optical Disk

This is a recent development in the storage devices. Optical disk • is also called Compact Disk (CD-ROM). The storage capacity of an optical disk is wonderful.. The diameter of this disk is 12 cm. and it can store 680411.3 of data.

Today optical disks are available which can store even more than 680 of data. This is very fast and cheap storage device. An amazing fact about optical disk is that a single disk is equivalent to 1000 floppy disks.

The data/information on the optical disk cannot be removed/altered. The data is stored permanently on the optical disk. These days CD writers have been made available which can also write the information/data on CDs.


dvd hardware of computer

DVD has full form as Digital Versatile Disk. You have learnt above that a single CD can store a large amount of data on it. Sometimes even a CD is not sufficient to write a complete program/information on it.

For example: a complete movie has to be stored on 2 or 3 CDs. Some softwares need more than one CD for recording. To eliminate this limitation, DVD-ROMs are used.

Physically a CD and a DVD look similar but the storage capacity of a DVD is 25 times more than a CD. A DVD can store up to 4.7 GB of data. The quality of a DVD is better than CD. DVD drive is generally called DVD Player.

The drives are data transfer speeds of 40X. DVD drive can also read a CD-ROM.



Flash memory is non-volatile computer memory that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. It is primarily used in memory cards and USB flash drives for general storage and transfer of data between computers and other digital products.

It is a specific type of EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) that is erased and programmed in large blocks; in early flash the entire Chip had to be erased at once.

Flash memory costs far less therefore, has become the dominant technology wherever a significant amount of non-volatile, solid-state storage is needed.

Example applications include laptop computers, digital audio players, digital cameras and mobile phones. It has also gained popularity in the game console market.

Flash memory is non-volatile, which requires no power to retain the information stored in the chip. In addition, flash memory offers fast read access times and possess better shock resistance than hard disks.

These characteristics explain the popularity of flash memory in portable devices. When flash memory is packaged in a memory card, it is enormously durable, being able to withstand intense pressure, extremes of temperature and even immersion in water.

Pen Drives

pen drive memory

Pen Drives are referred to as thumb drives. Pen drives are faster than downloading data via e-mail. A pen drive can transfer large volumes of data from :

  • laptop to laptop
  • desktop computer to laptop
  • laptop to a desktop computer.

Pen drives make accessing and transferring audio video files very easy with the USB plug-and-play interface.

USB pen drives provide dependable data, music an video transfers, and storage with plug and play ease. No driver software is needed for connecting pen drive.

Therefore, a pen drive can be put to use immediately as and when needed by the computer user. With no batteries, no software and no cables, a pen drive is totally portable.

Advantages of pen drive

  • It is portable.
  • It is light weight.
  • It is very compact.
  • It has a storage capacity ranging from 16MB to 32 GB.
  • It can transfer data at a very high speed.

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benefits and uses of computers

KNOW ABOUT USES OF COMPUTERS AND ITS EFFECTS IN DIFFERENT SPHERES: Computers has made the world like a small ball. Due to speed, accuracy, memory and other characteristics, the computers are used in all spheres of life.

These machines are used on ‘large scale in Banking Sector, Insurance Companies, Hospitals, Business Houses, Universities, Transportation, Engineering, Science etc.

Benefits and Uses of Computers


Banks are among the large organizations to invest heavily in computers. Today, the banking in urban areas is totally dependent on the computers.

The computerization in the banking sector is necessary because of massive volume of different types of transactions.

Computers have been installed in branches at different counters viz Saving Bank, Current Account, Cash Credit Account etc.

Cheques are handled by the computers at clearing houses. By computerization, many problems have been solved.

Balances are automatically tallied in the accounts. Customers can obtain printed statements of their accounts.

Automatic Teller Machines (ATM’s) have been installed branch premises of various banks. Different networks viz. BANKNET, SWIFT, NI RBINET are also working to expedite the customer service.

In all, banking is handicapped without computers.


The requirements of computers in this sector are similar to those in banking sector. A large number of files relating to customers’ policies is to be updated.

Calculation of bonus, premium, interest is to be done on a large scale. Insurance companies have to intimate to the customers who do not pay the instalments in time.

Matured policies are to be paid. Manually it is a tedious job to handle all these transactions. With the introduction of computers in this sector, the burden on the employees has been reduced and timely statements of accounts are ready in no time.


Today, without computers, working in the Railway Departments, Airlines, Shipping has become impossible. Railway time-tables and other timing schedules are prepared with the assistance of computers.

The Railway traffic has been increased to a very large extent and it has become impossible to control this traffic without the aid of computers.

The process of reservation in Railway is not possible without the help computers. The operator at any counter can tell you ‘the availability of the birth in a particular train.

Similarly computers are increasingly used in Airlines to control air traffic, reservation and cancellation of tickets.


The computers are used in the various fields of medicines viz. Hospital Administration, Monitoring the patient’s condition, diagnosis of a disease, medical research, laboratories, experimentation etc.

In the diagnosis of Cancer, Heart disease etc. computers play an important role and can monitor the patient’s condition.

Scanning instruments are attached to the patients and the attending doctor can notify the condition of the patient and start the right treatment.

The computers can assist in prescribing the correct dosage after monitoring the disease. These machines can effectively control the blood pressure, heart beats, level of glucose in blood.

In hospitals computers keep the records of indoor and outdoor patients. The computers are used in administration, preparing inventories of drugs, surgical equipments, bed allocation etc.

The appointments made/ to be made by the doctors are recorded in the computers.

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Telephone exchanges have been computerized to handle increasing volume of calls. Through computer networks the calls can be transmitted at a very fast speed.

At STD shops, computers can make the calculations of calls as per pulse rate according to the duration of the call.

The transmission of telegrams, fax messages has become very fast. The computers can maintain the log of calls for billing cycle.


The computer has played a leading role in space technology. Satellites are sent into space with the aid of computers.

These satellites are designed with computers. In the weather forecast, computers have been proved very useful.

The correct forecast given by the computers is very helpful for the people living in hilly areas or at sea-shores.


Computers are being used in large scale in all industries larger or smaller. Computers control the production efficiency in various industries.

In steel industry the accurate cutting of steel sheets into desired length is controlled by computer systems. Computers are responsible in controlling machines.

The maintenance temperature, pressure to a controlled level. The chemical plants are controlled by computers more effectively than to control it manually.

In drilling and rolling, computers play a crucial role. Computers can monitor and regulate the process of refining in refineries without human intervention.

The computers can detect the faults in gas pipe lines and other systems and help to bring the process back into normal.


In large departments, organizations, business houses, factories etc. computer is an aid in preparing pay rolls of the staff members.

In calculations of Salary, D.A and other allowances computers make no mistakes. Income tax calculations of employees are done with the assistance of computers.


Computer has become part and parcel of education at levels primary or higher. Computer has enriched the learning process at various levels of education.

At higher level, students of Engineering and Science can derive benefits from computes. By learning computer programs they can solve their problems with the aid of computers.

Computers solve mathematical equations and other scientific problems very quickly. Besides, a part of education, schools, colleges and universities are using computers for various utilities viz. pay rolls, time-tables etc.

Last but not least, computer has proved its worth in all spheres of life. Without computers, the man of today, is not capable of doing his activities.

Computer has made the universe like a tennis ball.

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